Types of abuse

The Southend, Essex and Thurrock Adult Safeguarding Guidelines also define ten different categories of abuse as follows:

Physical abuse: may include hitting, slapping, pushing, kicking, misuse of medication, misuse of restraint, or inappropriate sanctions.

Domestic abuse: may include psychological, physical, sexual, financial, emotional abuse; so-called “honour” based abuse and forced marriage.

Sexual abuse: may include rape and sexual assault, or sexual acts to which the adult has not consented, or could not consent, or where pressure was applied to secure their consent.

Psychological abuse: may include verbal abuse, emotional abuse, threats, deprivation of contact, humiliation, blaming, controlling, intimidation, coercion, harassment, isolation or withdrawal from services or supportive networks.

Financial or Material abuse: may include theft, fraud, exploitation, pressure in connection with wills, property of  inheritance or financial transactions, or the misuse or misappropriation of property, possessions or benefits.

Modern slavery: encompasses slavery, human trafficking, forced labour and domestic servitude.

Discriminatory abuse: may include racist or sexist remarks or comments based on a person's impairment, disability, age or illness, and other forms of harassment, slurs or similar treatment.

Organisational abuse: involves the collective failure of an organisation to provide an appropriate and professional service to adults with care and support needs. It can be seen or detected in processes, attitudes and behaviour that amount to discrimination through unwitting prejudice, ignorance, thoughtlessness and stereotyping. It includes a failure to ensure the necessary safeguards are in place to protect adults and maintain good standards of care in accordance with individual needs, including training of staff, supervision and management,record keeping and liaising with other providers of care.

Neglect (including acts of omission): may include ignoring medical or physical care needs, failure to provide access to appropriate health, social care or educational services, the withholding of the necessities of life, such as medication, food and drink and heating.

Self-neglect: includes a wide range of behaviours neglecting to care for one’s personal hygiene, health or surrounding and includes behaviour such as hoarding.